Alpha-Ketoglutarate

ypera-alpha-ketoglutarate

The science behind Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), one of the active nutrikinetic QoL Enhancer™ ingredients in the proprietary Molecular Action Blend™ of YPERA® Ultra Regeneration Gel™

Introduction

AKG (alpha-ketoglutarate) is the nitrogen-free portion of the amino acids known as glutamine and glutamic acid. It is formed in the Krebs cycle, the energy-producing process that occurs in most body cells. AKG is used by cells during growth and healing from injuries and other wounds and is especially crucial in healing muscle tissue. For these reasons, it has been hypothesized that AKG improves performance, strength, and muscle mass.

Many of these findings are based on how alpha-ketoglutaric acid works in the body, including its role in regulating the immune system and bone development. As a precursor of glutamate and glutamine, AKG acts as a powerful antioxidant agent, beneficial in reducing oxidative stress and the subsequent repression of gastrointestinal pathologies.

AKG is a nutrikinetic substance and follows the same catabolic pathways as amino acids and works by improving the body’s metabolism, thereby improving the renal function. Alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation is used for kidney disease, intestinal, and stomach disorders, including bacterial infections, liver problems; cataracts; and recurring yeast infections. It is also used for improving the way kidney patients receiving hemodialysis treatments process protein.  

Comparing AKG to Vitamins

Scientific research suggests that Alpha-ketoglutaric-acid (AKG) has a variety of benefits as a super-antioxidant versus Vitamins.

  • Antioxidants like Vitamin C and E react with all free radicals, including essential radicals vital for immune defense.

  • AKG eliminates predominately highly Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (RONS) such as peroxides but not the “essential” ones.

  • In their function to remove free radicals, antioxidants can turn into highly reactive substances, e.g., Vitamin C Radical, resulting in uncontrolled dysfunctions.

  • AKG, in its function as an antioxidant, turns into a harmless substance (succinate) without any oxidative potential, which in itself is essential for physiological processes in the central nervous system. 

The Science

Alpha-ketoglutarate-acid (AKG) is a naturally occurring, nitrogen-free portion of the amino acids glutamine and glutamic acid. AKG is a crucial biologic compound and is a critical intermediate in the citric acid cycle. The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, or the Krebs cycle, is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration.

AKG is an essential substrate of one of the main metabolic enzymatic complexes (alpha- dehydrogenase, HIFalpha, alpha-keto-oxygenase, GOT). In the citric cycle, the high reductive potential of AKG results in the formation of NADH+ from NAD+ and two electrons, which starts the initial reduction oxygen forming intracellular ATP.

AKG is also essential for the detoxification of NH4+ on glutamate (detoxification of ammonia and amines within the urea cycle). It can combine with ammonia resulting in glutamate and then glutamine. Through transaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase, it can modulate the excess of nitrogen producing urea. Besides, it is also involved as a co-substrate in important oxidative reactions. Furthermore, AKG regulates through glutamate production of non-essential amino acids.

The pathological metabolism of cancer cells is also characterized by increased nitrogen bases from the de-amination of nucleotides, ethanolamine (sphingolipids), and amino acids.

Nitrogen released by these processes is removed by AKG, balances the body’s nitrogen load, and prevents nitrogen overload. AKG is one of the most critical nitrogen transporters in metabolic pathways. The amino acid amino groups are adhered to by transamination and carried to the liver, where the urea cycle occurs.

The AKG is transaminated, along with glutamine, to form the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and other arginines. AKG has a high redox potential, which is at least eight times higher than that of vitamin C and is a vital intra- and extracellular antioxidant.

AKG reacts non-enzymatically with the intracellular H2O2 forming succinate, a necessary intermediate in the citric cycle. H2O2 is reduced to succinate, CO2, and water. AKG also reacts with peroxynitrite (mainly produced by macrophages), forming succinate and nitrite, which can be recycled to NO*

alpha-ketoglutaric-acid–structural-formula

AKG Structural Formula

Molecular Action Blend™

AKG is an active QoL Enhancer™ ingredient of the proprietary Molecular Action Blend™ of YPERA®, providing a wide variety of nutrikinetic functions.

  • It is a more potent free radical (RONS) scavenger than Vitamin C, but it doesn’t react with the “essential” ones.

  • The preventative reduction of oxidative stress and a decline in the generation of free radicals and their toxic products. 

  • Has an essential function in the oxidation reactions with molecular oxygen for the reduction of tissue damage.

  • Acts as a nitrogen regulator in the metabolism and prevents a heightened nitrogen level.

  • Generates the stimulating neurotransmitter glutamate and leads to an enzymatically controlled detoxification of ammonia.

  • Is a crucial biological intermediate in ATP production to generate energy in the cells. 

  • Reduces the occurrence of complications after surgery through an increase in the rate of the healing process.

  • Aids the cell oxygen supply (protein synthesis) and enhanced energy production leading to an increased anaerobic threshold and better performance.

It is Safe

AKG is naturally occurring in human metabolism and can therefore be considered to be nontoxic. Any excess in the body will either be excreted in urine or broken down into the primary amino acid building blocks for other purposes.

At present, there is no report about the possible toxicological effect of AKG in humans or animals. Furthermore, no daily limits have been determined by the FDA, EMEA, or other competent authorities that approve human use substances.

Oversight from a trained medical practitioner is always advised before supplementation. Pregnant and nursing mothers, as well as young children, should avoid supplementing with YPERA®. 

The Takeaway

The synergistic combination of Alpha-ketoglutarate-acid (AKG) as part of the Molecular Action Blend™ in YPERA® improves the general state of health and physical performance associated with accelerated recovery and rehabilitation. It discourages harmful changes in the body, resulting from oxidative stress reactions that enhance oxygen utilization and muscle protein synthesis during the rehabilitation period.


Note These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek your physician’s advice or other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.


© 2019 Ypera Inc. All Rights Reserved.

©  Ypera Inc.
All rights reserved.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.