Beta-alanyl-L-histidine (Carnosine) is one of the active QoL Enhancer ™ ingredients in the proprietary Molecular Action Blend ™ of YPERA®
Carnosine is a protein building block that is naturally produced in the body’s muscle cells. Made up of the amino acids histidine and beta-alanine, Carnosine is classified as a “dipeptide.” It is found in abundance throughout the body, especially in the brain, skeletal muscles, and kidneys, where energy demands are high.
Younger individuals tend to have higher levels of Carnosine, as the production of Carnosine dwindles with age. Additionally, chronic conditions such as blood sugar irregularities and metabolic disorders may also contribute to lower than normal carnosine levels.
With various functions, Carnosine is most noted for its antioxidant capabilities, protecting the body from the harmful effects of free radicals. Free radicals are inflammatory molecules that contribute to body burden and increase aging, inflammation, and disease rates.
Outside of impeding cellular damage caused by free radical oxidation, Carnosine has also been researched for its ability to promote balanced blood glucose levels, enhance muscle function/development, delay aging, enhance longevity, and boost memory, DNA, and gut health.
Since Carnosine is synthesized inside muscle tissues, it is found in high amounts of protein-rich foods, including beef, turkey, pork, poultry, and fish. Plant-based sources include button mushrooms, soybeans, green peas, and asparagus, although they tend to be much lower in concentration.
Molecular Action Blend™
From the brain to the gut and everything in between, as an active ingredient of the proprietary Molecular Action Blend™ of YPERA®, Carnosine has mighty benefits.
Carnosine can protect the body from free radicals. Free radicals are derived from internal and external factors, including environmental toxins, physical/emotional stressors, metabolic waste products, and poor dietary habits. When left uncontrolled, free radicals can wreak havoc on arterial walls, DNA, cellular energy production, and more. Carnosine helps to deactivate excessive free radicals, therefore supports the health of our cardiovascular system, genes, and ability to produce energy.
Reverse Skin Damage
Cellular glycation occurs when sugar molecules attach to proteins in the body. Since sugar is sticky, glycation can slow down the ability of our cells to function correctly. Glycated proteins that become oxidized by free radicals are called Advanced Glycated Endproducts (AGEs) and contribute to aging and disease. By binding to free sugar groups that would otherwise bind to cellular proteins and decreasing the levels of AGEs in the body, Carnosine helps protect our organs and tissues from these highly inflammatory molecules.
Mitochondria are like the “battery packs” of each cell, responsible for producing energy to ensure cells, tissues, and organs function optimally. Studies have shown that mice fed high levels of l-carnosine showed improved mitochondrial functioning, especially in mitochondria-dense brain cells. Carnosine supplementation has also been shown to inhibit the cross-linking of proteins in the brain, contributing to various cognitive disorders, cognitive decline, and brain inflammation. Additional mouse studies have shown that carnosine supplementation decreases glutamic acid toxicity (a molecule that puts the brain into overdrive and leads to brain cell burnout).
Carnosine has been shown to balance the body’s innate immune responses, helping maintain balance against pathogens. It has also been shown to be of importance for those suffering from an overactive or underactive immune system. Also, it helps to decrease inflammatory molecules that would otherwise put the immune system into an (unnecessary) overdrive.
Carnosine is beneficial for those suffering from ulcerations and wounds due to imbalanced glucose levels and speed healing rates. For athletes, the precursor to Carnosine (beta-alanine) enhances VO2 levels. For those who consume alcohol, Carnosine has been shown to bind to excess amounts of acetaldehyde (a byproduct of alcohol metabolism), decreasing its impact on both the liver and immune cells.
Several studies show the direct and indirect antioxidant activity of Carnosine, as demonstrated in several in vitro studies. Carnosine’s antioxidant activity is mediated by different mechanisms involving metal ion chelation and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxyl radicals.
Carnosine was found to directly react with superoxide anion at physiological concentrations like superoxide dismutase (SOD). The mechanism of Carnosine interaction with superoxide radicals is based on Carnosine’s ability to form a charge-transfer complex with the superoxide radical, which changes the reactivity of O2. Carnosine is also an effective quencher of other ROS such as hydroxyl radicals ( OH). In particular, evidence was provided through pulse- radiolysis, indicating that Carnosine is a good scavenger of OH radicals.
Several in vitro and in vivo studies have reported carnosine and related peptides to prevent the formation of advanced lipoxidation end-products (ALEs) and advanced glycoxidation end- products (AGEs). These compounds are involved in the aging process and the onset and propagation of several oxidative-based diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.
An essential aspect of Carnosine’s physiological role in skeletal muscle is related to contractile function in general and, more specifically, to excitation-contraction coupling (calcium handling) and the protection against exercise-induced acidosis (pH buffering). Thus possessing high muscle carnosine content may be advantageous for high-intensity exercise capacity.
There is a considerable variation in muscle carnosine content among humans. Three- to fourfold differences have been demonstrated between the lowest (10 mmol/kg dry wt) and highest (40 mmol/kg dry wt) reported levels in humans. Despite the sizeable interindividual variation, the intraindividual variation is somewhat limited. Re- peated muscle carnosine measurements over time in the same person display only small fluctuations, and very high correlations have been found for muscle carnosine content within monozygotic twin pairs.
It is Safe
Carnosine is generally recognized as safe for use in the appropriate amounts by healthy adults. At present, there is no report about the possible toxicological effect of Carnosine in humans. Furthermore, no daily limits have been determined by the FDA, EMEA, or other competent authorities that approve human use substances.
Oversight from a trained medical practitioner is always advised before supplementation. Pregnant and nursing mothers, as well as young children, should avoid supplementing with YPERA®.
The synergistic combination of Carnosine (Beta-alanyl-L-histidine) as part of the Molecular Action Blend™ in YPERA® provides many health benefits. Carnosine has powerful antioxidant properties, allowing it to protect cells against free radical damage. It reduces inflammation, a driver of many types of chronic disease. Due to these effects, it is thought that Carnosine could help protect against many aging-related conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease and cardiovascular disease.